An excerpt from William Litt's journal 'Wrestliana' published in 1823, in which he describes the different wrestling throws in Cumberland and Westmorland style wrestling,and the difficulties in establishing rules for 'taking hold' prior to commencement of a bout.

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We shall now for the better information of those spectators not conversant either in the practice, or theory of wrestling, as well as of those who wish to become so, devote a few pages to the explanation of those terms usually applied to the methods which are used in the art, or to speak more intelligibly to our less knowing readers, the different methods of striking, or assailing an opponent, so as to effect the desired object of bringing him down, generally termed throwing him by the spectators, but by some hardy and unrefined practisers(sic) of the exercise, broadly, and we must own, rather brutally, called felling him. These methods are much more various and complicated in close hold wrestling than in any other mode; which diversity we conceive to be a strong proof of the superiority of this exercise to any other, which indeed is evinced by the great interest it never has failed to excite; a diversity which must be regarded as characteristic of something noble and manly, as it can be occasioned only by a contest of men. The most general and usual methods are those which follow:- Throwing men by lifting them off the ground, and rapidly placing one of the knees between their thighs, is now become very common all over Cumberland and Westmorland. It was however very little known between the rivers Derwent and Duddon till within the last 20 years. It is generally called hipeing, we conceive from the supposed great use of the hip in the execution of it. There is however too essential a difference in the modes of practicing it for any general agreement in the propriety of the term.

An explanation of one or two of these modes may serve to elucidate the point – give the reader some idea of the propriety of the term – and enable him to ascertain the accuracy of our definition of it. When immediately on lifting, the knee and thigh are thrown in and forced upwards so that quickly wheeling the whole frame to the contrary side, the assailant is enabled  when turning his man with his arms, and delivering him from his breast, to pitch him with his hip, (which will then be close against the lower part of his belly) in such a manner, that not being able to catch the ground with either foot, he is thrown upon his back; an operation which requires a close hold, and great rapidity in the execution of it; we conceive it may with propriety, be provincially called hipeing. Thomas Richardson of Hesket, commonly called the dyer, is allowed to be one if not the very best hiper among the present list of Cumbrian Wrestlers. But when on lifting, the superior length of the assailant enables him to throw his leg so high that his opponent is turned by the action of the knee, against the inside of his thigh, and the simultaneous effort of the arms and breast, as was generally practiced by the celebrated William Wilson, of Ambleside, we conceive the proper appellation to be inside striking. That this is quite a different mode from what we have termed hipeing, is still more evident by some Wrestlers lifting their man, and waiting some time for an opportunity; when this is the case, the fall is usually occasioned by the knee, aided by the dextrose management of the arms only, and does not require the men being so close to other as hipeing. This method is now become very common, and if the term striking can be as properly, as it is commonly applied to wrestling, we think it can admit of no definition but an inside stroke.   It is an invariable maxim, that when a man is determined to make play, the sooner he does it, and the quicker he is doing it, the greater will be his chance of succeeding. To guard against an inside stroke, or hipe, the defendant should if possible keep himself on the ground. To do this he must either lift against his opponent, or slackening his own hold, endeavour by wrenching his body from his opponent’s grasp to plant himself, as it were to the ground, striving at the same time to keep his opponent off with his breast, and if possible to shrink it underneath his assailant’s.

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